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Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33158 09/14/15 11:59 AM
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TIMBEAL Offline
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I have always thought lofting belonged to the boat building world, I just adopted the term. From my understanding a shape is laid out on a floor, full size and structure laid in on top the shape is transferred to the timber above via plumb and level. Lofting could also have some aspects of taking measurements from the full size layout and pull those lengths off and carry them to a timber not positioned over the drawing, one would just us it to gain a length. Is lofting connected to a section of a building.... the loft, a place not used for much, say an upper level room? Etymology of [url=lofthttp://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=loft][url=lofthttp://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=loft][url=lofthttp://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=loft]lofthttp://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=loft[/url][/url][/url]

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33160 09/14/15 03:09 PM
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Jim Rogers Online Confused
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Timbeal:
I believe the term "lofting" comes from when the sail makers would layout a full size pattern of the sail on the floor of the loft of their sail maker's shop. Then they'd cut the sail material to that size and sew it up to make the sail

When timber framers saw this method they adopted it to layout timber frames.

I think that's how it was created. But if I'm wrong I would believe that someone here will post the correct version of the story.

Jim Rogers


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Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33169 09/17/15 06:07 AM
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Cecile en Don Wa Offline
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For Timbeals eyes only:
Boatbuilding's plausible. Your braces and the Norwegian way of using them too seem like the reverse way they are used in the hull of wooden boats.

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33172 09/17/15 04:38 PM
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As above so below. Things get twisted a bit and braces end up in reverse.

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33194 10/02/15 02:13 PM
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The sweep of the handle of a single bevel is essential though, (speaking here of short handle for the style of squaring up done standing alongside with the timber fairly high up), not to keep the hand next to the wood from getting skinned- like you said it, anyone will quickly learn how to adjust the grip to solve that problem and regardless, I take it for granted I might be leaving a bit of blood behind on the stem Ė but like I was trying to point out, to position your shoulders at a right angle to the axis of the timber and thatís why the far hand should be back at the end of the handle, not the near hand, (see drawing above). At the same time, when that sweep gets excessive then the whole thing is out of balance and youíre better off with no sweep. Here is an example of excessive sweep. Iíve since cut it down but even still the handle is not good.

Like the poll of an axe, the sweep of a handle often leads some to untimely and not thought through conclusions when we go to drawing those in a state of ignorance, and letís face it, since the time between when axes were essential and the time when they have become novelty a lot of knowledge about them has simply become faded memory and the only way to get it back is by keeping an open mind and getting a sense of the subtleties of the massive amount knowledge contained in all kinds axes and do away with the simplistic notions. These do a real disservice to the ones who have contributed to such fine axes we have available to get our grubby hands on and put back to use.

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33235 10/30/15 01:58 AM
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hello everyone tonight

Well sorry for being away so long, but have needed to rest

While I was resting I was reviewing some of my video footage, and by chance came upon the restoration of the water power that operates the 1865 Mulay saw mill at UCV--for those of you who do not know the terminology, this mill consists of a single vertical 6 foot blade, about 12 " wide and 3\16" in thickness, with 2" teeth set at 2.5" spacings

I had entered it on one video disk and covered the rebuild of the horizontal pressure box, the large 12"oak drive shaft, and the eventual installation in the mill.

The box (all heavy white oak segments) were adzed out circular on the inside. These segments 3 in total were bolted together after adzing side by side, the adzed out interior about 36" in diameter, the box itself appears square on the outside

The shaft was turned oak 12" in finished size, with multiple tapered areas on each end to accept specialized castings, such as heavy ringed collars with cups, that directed the force of the pressurized water inside the box which in turn rotated the shaft, to power the saw blade

Other components installed on the ends of the wooden shaft were
what was referred to as spiders, or gudgeons, these specialized castings had for instance on the drive end, a 12" offset crank that as it rotated lifted and lowered the blade 24" and operating at approx. 100 rpms

You can imagine the strain and vibration on the crank as it reached its upper and lower limits at that speed

You would wonder how it was fastened in place so that it would not fail after a few minutes let alone years of work

Well let me tell you the old millwrights knew the secret--for another time--

NH

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33236 11/02/15 02:46 AM
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well hello everyone tonight

just to continue on----

The old millwrights used hot lead or babbet if it was available, babbet was used for bearings and was stronger but dearer and more scarce to obtain--the babbet was heated until--get this--a dry pine shaving would burst into flames upon contact--my millwright and I conducted an experiment and we registered the temperature of the babbet, from then on we just heated the lead to this temperature when we were actually pouring the babbet--it came out beautiful, and didn't burn the oak that contained the wings of the crank and idler gudgeons

After pouring and cooling the babbet it was pounded with a mallet and dull edged babbeting chisel all along the wings to expand and really tighten everything

Right now this whole unit has been operating approx. 12 years and shows no sign of failure

Going on to another aspect of this setup the pitman which was heavy oak approx. 9 feet long and rectangular in shape had to be renewed as part of the restoration, this shaft connected to the offset crank (which we just renewed and leaded in), up to the sawing level and attached to the 6' blade, (referred to previously).

Now has any one an idea how this wooden pitman was attached both at the upper and lower level, so that it could withstand the jerking and yanking experienced as the large wooden shaft rotated , especially when it was under load and experiencing the cutting action of the blade at the nominal rotation of approx. 90 rpm,.At the lower end (crank end) the crank rotated in a 24 inch circle, and of course at the blade end had to move back and forth slightly

it is incredibly interesting in my opinion to understand this old technology


Thanks for coming on board let me know if you enjoy this deviation from constructing wooden frames, I did construct historical wooden frames too, but thoroughly enjoyed straying into other historical areas, which at times intermingled with hewing, framing, millwrighting, it sometimes is hard to understand the connection and the experience needed at times to carry out a project, that might include hewing timbers, it might also be setting a steam engine in position, it could be placing mill stones and their associated drive mechanisms in place on their "beds" which in my case were very heavy oak husking frames that they rested on--If there is interest I could really expand on this subject-let me know

All I can say is enjoy the chat, it may be of use to some of you someday--I hope so

Your friend Richard

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33237 11/03/15 02:30 AM
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northern hewer Offline OP
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hello everyone tonight

Well I guess there seems to be no interest

NH

Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33238 11/03/15 02:31 PM
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Jim Rogers Online Confused
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Thanks for sharing and I'm interested in anything you want to tell us about.

Jim Rogers


Whatever you do, have fun doing it!
Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer] #33239 11/03/15 03:49 PM
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Dido Jim comment...love reading your post!!

T think much of what comes accross forum post like yours are more than worth of publication...Deep thanks. I check in on this "running conversation" ever so often and find the information/conversation very enjoyable...

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