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#33609 - 03/24/16 09:02 AM Re: historic hewing questionnaire ***** [Re: northern hewer]
Dave Shepard Online   content
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Registered: 02/19/06
Posts: 707
Loc: Alford, MA
The Hancock, MA, Shakers had burr stones. There is one just visible in the lawn outside the dwelling house. Another was found during excavation of the dam at the Shaker mill in West Stockbridge, MA. A friend of mine has it. I believe the historical society wants to have him restore it.
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#33615 - 03/24/16 07:30 PM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
Dave Shepard Online   content
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Registered: 02/19/06
Posts: 707
Loc: Alford, MA
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#33616 - 03/24/16 10:32 PM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
northern hewer Offline
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Registered: 03/17/02
Posts: 1096
hello everyone tonight

that is a nice picture of a burr stone's segments, and the steel band that held everything together--thanks for taking the time to post it here, for everyone to see

it is hard to explain the texture of the stone but when it is furrowed and trued, it produced the finest of flour, of course you needed a top notch miller to utilize the operate the mill--needless to say--my father used to say--"you can have the best tools, but if you can't use them properly, the outcome is for naught"

Getting back to the second part of your question concerning the suspension of the rotating upper stone and maintaining its tolerances--this is how that was achieved-----

you have to visualize the setup, the grinding stones sit atop a husking frame, which is a network of timbers, which sits within the mill structure, and is independent of the mill's structure--which means it cannot touch any part of the mill itself, this is important because the vibration of the grinding stones at work would eventually destruct the structure

This husking frame in a mill using a turbine would sit astride the turbine in the basement, with it right in the centre of the framework, and rising from the turbine would be the driveshaft, usually about 4" in diameter, this shafting would rise from floor to floor right up into the attic, and at this point would with the help of bevel gearing redirect the shaft's rotation horizontally usually right across the total attic area

it is up in here that many wooden pulleys of varying sizes would be rotating sending down power to the various floor's equipment using leather belting also of varying widths, depending on the amount of power being expended from the shafting, and of course needed

also up in here would be situated the sack hoisting equipment, a very crude but also very workable and necessary setup---needed to quickly move bags of grain to the top story beginning its eventual movement downwards towards the grinding stones

well have to go now

will continue--more to come--enjoy

Richard

NH

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#33635 - 03/31/16 09:59 PM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
northern hewer Offline
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Registered: 03/17/02
Posts: 1096
hello everyone tonight

while we are here in the attic, lets discuss things a bit, because we might not get back here for a while------

THE HOISTING APPARATUS--

really quite crude but works like a charm--lets visualize a round wood shaft about 5 feet long and about 8 inches in diameter.

one end of the shaft has a metal rod of 2" imbedded at least 12 inches into the wood shaft, and protrudes about 6" out from the end--

the opposite end also has a 2" metal shaft imbedded, but fastened in such a way that it is unable to revolve inside the wood shaft --many methods could be used to effect this, so no more said--this shaft also protrudes 16" beyond the end of the wood shaft--the reason for this is as follows:

on this metal shaft is fastened securely a wooden pulley about 24" in diameter and 8" thick\width, leaving some of the shaft protruding beyond the pulley--this will be needed--

now this whole unit is positioned right under and parallel to the rotating attic drive shaft--remember this attic shaft is rotating and continues to rotate as long as the mill is in operation--

let us first discuss the fastening of the wooden shaft's end opposite the pulley--the protruding metal shaft is inserted into a rigid wooden block fastened securely to the structure\building's frame--the hole in the block is of sufficient size to allow the 5' wood shaft to move up and down without binding --

now the other end with the 24' pulley

well enough for tonight
have to go

enjoy

NH

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#33638 - 04/01/16 09:47 PM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
northern hewer Offline
Member

Registered: 03/17/02
Posts: 1096
hello everyone tonight

well let us get this hoisting apparatus up and running----I am sure everyone is wondering how it works --well here we go----

visualize the wooden shaft under the rotating parallel attic shaft--this parallel shaft is about 48" above floor level about 2" in diameter, and at full operating speed is rotating at 100rpm's per min

now we know the one end of the wood shaft is captive in a wood bearing that allows the opposite end of the shaft to raise and lower 12" without binding

the next procedure is to fasten a 6"" pulley to the 2" rotating shaft directly above the 24" wooden pulley--

now the tricky part---remember the end of the metal shaft that protruded beyond the wooden pulley--well now we will be using it--

take a piece of good quality hardwood --3" by 6"--put a small bolt through the end to keep it from splitting, and then bore a hole of sufficient size to slip easily on the end of the shaft--this piece of wood will need to be about 8 feet long and I would taper it to about 3 by 4" on the extreme end

now taking a fulcrum experiment until you can easily raise the wooden shaft, but leaving enough weight so the shaft and pulley will lower downward under its own weight

on the outer end fasten a rope passing it down through a hole in the floor to be easily reached by someone standing at the ground floor door--this can be done with the use of a few small pulleys

now here we are say it is you and you are standing in the doorway you pull down on the rope, it raises the wooden shaft in the attic until it engages the 24" wooden pulley against the 6" rotating smaller pulley--friction does the rest--presto the wood shaft starts to rotate--

finally a larger rope is wound on the wood shaft and passing through a few wood pulleys is directed down to the landing usually in the front of the mill, or the wherever the receiving area is

to finish this scenario--the larger rope is fastened around a bag of wheat, you pull down on the rope, and the bag lifts to the worker on the second storey, who unhooks it an returns it back for another bag and so on----

well have to go

enjoy

Richard

NH

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#33639 - 04/02/16 11:42 AM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
Dave Shepard Online   content
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Registered: 02/19/06
Posts: 707
Loc: Alford, MA
Is there any facing on the pulleys, or just wood on wood?
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#33641 - 04/02/16 09:16 PM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
northern hewer Offline
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Registered: 03/17/02
Posts: 1096
hello everyone tonight

Hi Dave

preferably the larger wheel is wooden, the smaller if not wood and no doubt very well could be a metal pulley due to its size--- its surface should be covered I would use a piece of belting riveted to the metal surface

The larger wheel if not wooden should also be covered with belting

This of course would provide the friction necessary to make everything rotate easily

I forgot to mention that the main hoisting rope would probably be 3\4" manila for wear and safety

thanks for getting back with the question, a good point to bring up for clarification

NH

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#33654 - 04/18/16 09:21 PM Re: historic hewing questionnaire [Re: northern hewer]
northern hewer Offline
Member

Registered: 03/17/02
Posts: 1096
Hello everyone tonight

Well the attic situation has been well observed and I think most people understands what happens up in there so lets move to the basement and in particular the water power source we use its an 1865 45 HP Leffel turbine, it is enclosed in a circular metal case about 60 inches in diameter, around the perimeter you will notice numerous openings, which can be closed or opened depending on the position of each one's door.

How these doors are opened and closed, is as follows--each door is attached to a rod that extends to a gear driven collar situated around the bearing that guides the rotating 4" shaft rising from the internal runner

more tomorrow

NH

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#33655 - 04/22/16 04:18 PM Re: Hand Hewn Oak Beam [Re: northern hewer]
greybeard Offline
Member

Registered: 04/22/16
Posts: 1
I apologize if this shows up as a reply, but I'm new, here and can't seem to figure out how to create a new thread.

I have a 10x10 hand hewn red oak beam about 20 feet long that, due to zoning restrictions I won't be able to use (project killed by zoning)

If there's anyone interested in it you are welcome to call me at 508-816-9540 for details. I'm in Marlborough MA.

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#33674 - 05/18/16 09:27 PM Re: Hand Hewn Oak Beam [Re: northern hewer]
D_McBride Offline
Member

Registered: 08/29/15
Posts: 11
Hello Richard, haven't heard from you in a while. You know, the water powered mills weren't just for grain and sawmilling. Water also powered many of the early factories. The water turned pullies that turned belts that turned machinery. And the belting, it was primarily the hides of buffalo. Nowadays, we have all sorts of rubberized materials that are made into industrial belting, but in the late 1800's it was mostly buffalo leather that powered the machinery of America. I'd never really thought of it much before, but I read the following. It made me think.
"After the Civil War (1860-1864) the buffalo also became an important resource for thousands of commercial hunters who needed employment in a time when cash and jobs were scarce. Industrial growth in the United States and Europe during the 1870s was driving demand for machinery belts made of leather, and the extension of railroads after the Civil War made it easier to transport buffalo hides to the industrial eastern markets. Selling of buffalo hides opened up foreign markets in England and Germany, where buffalo leather machine belts were helping factories produce much wanted and needed consumer goods." That's from a website about Texas history, http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/redriver/images/rr-whosebuffalo.pdf
When you hear of the buffalo herds being hunted for their hides, you never really think about what use all that leather was put to. Hope to hear from you, Richard. Me? I'm still hewing cabin logs. I'm to the point where I can hew a 20' white pine log in a little over 4 hours, hew it to a fine finish, but it's 4 hours of hard work. I love it. I think you know what I mean, too.

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